Categories of Tawheed(oneness of Allah)


– Sami Zaatari

Tawheed is the essence of Islam, it is the core of Islam, it is what Islam stands for, and it is the reason why Allah created us. All prophets and messengers were sent with the message of Tawheed, the Quran itself is a book of Taweed, and those who have a firm and correct belief in Tawheed will indeed be the saved ones.

So therefore what is Tawheed, what does it mean, and how does someone correctly follow it? Well for starters you should know that Tawheed has been divided into three categories, and they are as follows:

Tawheed of Lordship (Rubbubiyah)

Tawheed of Worship (Ibaadah/Uluhiyyah)

Tawheed of Allah’s names and Attributes (Taweed ul-Asmaa was-Sifaat)

Each of the above categories are found within the Quran, they are not three categories simply based on someone’s desires or own thinking, rather the categories are all established within the Quran and the Sunnah.

One must not get confused about there being three categories, it does not mean that there are three Allah’s and so forth, rather the three categories are all connected to Allah, and each category is connected to the other, essentially all three categories fall within the term of Tawheed.

The reason why Tawheed has been divided into three categories by the scholars is simply to make things more simple and easier for the people, for when you break things down, it is always easier to follow, and easier to understand.

As the scholars of Islam-Qa mention:

From early times the scholars have categorized the rulings of sharee’ah. This has only been done to make it easier to understand the texts and rulings of sharee’ah, especially as time goes by and knowledge of Arabic language becomes weaker and the language gets mixed with foreign languages. The scholars thought it wise to set out principles, issues and categories to make it easier to understand. There is nothing wrong with this, in fact it is a good thing because it makes knowledge more accessible to the Muslims. Al-Shaafa’i set out the principles of fiqh and his categorization was well-received and was followed by the scholars of usool who wrote commentaries on what he said and added to it. This was done in all branches of Islamic knowledge such as tajweed (recitation of Qur’aan), Qur’aan and others, including Tawheed.

So let us now go into each category of Tawheed and what they mean, starting with Tawheed of Lordship:

The types of Tawheed are three:

Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah,

 Tawheed al-Ilaahiyyah and

 Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat.

Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah is singling out Allaah the Exalted with (the actions of) creation, providing sustenance, giving life, causing death, and all of the types of regulation and administration of the dominion of the heavens and earth, and (also) singling Him out, the Exalted, with (the right to) judgement and legislation and sending of the Messengers and revealing of Books. Allaah the Exalted said, “Verily, to Him belongs the creation and the command, blessed be Allaah, the Lord of the worlds” (al-A`raaf 7:54).

Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah is singling out Allaah with worship so that none besides Him is worshipped, so that none besides Him is called upon, so that no one is sought for rescue, or aid except Him. So that no one is sacrificed to or slaughtered for, or made an oath for, except Him. Allaah the Exalted said, “Say: My prayer, my sacrifice, my life and my death are for Allaah, the Lord of the worlds. He has no partner. This is what I have been commanded with and I am the first of those who submit (to him with Islaam and Tawheed)” (al-An’aam 6:162), and He said, “Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only)” (al-Kawthar 108:2).

And Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat is describing Allaah the Most High and naming Him with whatever He described and named Himself with, and with whatever His Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) described and named Him with in the authentic narrations – and to affirm that for Allaah without resemblance (to the creation) or likening (to the creation), and without (false) interpretation (of any of that) or negation (of any of that). There is nothing like Him and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. And may Allaah send prayers and salutations upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and his companions.

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Living Islam


Islam is also a “way of life.” The faith offers guidance and structure in all aspects of daily life, from birth and death rites, to courtship and marriage relationships, and in education and business dealings.

Some people think that religion is composed of rituals limited to certain times- They think about Allah and the afterlife only when they pray, fast, give charity or go on the pilgrimage. At other times they are engrossed in the business of the world.

Living by the values of Islam is possible by applying the commands and advice given in the Qur’an to every aspect of life. This and the practice of the Sunnah ( practice of the Prophet Mohammed (Peace be upon him)) is the only way that people can achieve the best and happiest results in this world and the next. Our Lord tells us in the Qur’an that a person can attain the best kind of life by doing right actions:

Anyone who acts rightly, male or female, being a believer, We will give them a good life and We will recompense them according to the best of what they did. (QURAN,Surat an-Nahl: 97)

Muslims strive each day to walk the “middle road” — meeting one’s needs and living life, while being ever-mindful of God and the responsibilities we each have to Him and to our fellow human beings. A Muslim should try to strike a balance, being “of this world” without being neglectful of the spiritual realm.

What is Islam?

Islam, which comes from an Arabic root word meaning “peace” and “submission.” Islam teaches that one can only find peace in one’s life by submitting to Almighty God (Allah) in heart, soul and deed. The same Arabic root word gives us “Salaam alaykum,” (“Peace be with you”), the universal Muslim greeting.

Who is a Muslim?

A person who believes in and consciously follows Islam is called a Muslim, also from the same root word. So, the religion is called “Islam,” and a person who believes in and follows it is a “Muslim.”

 

Who is Allah?

Allah is the proper name for Almighty God, and is often translated merely as “God.” Allah has other names that are used to describe His characteristics: the Creator, the Sustainer, the Merciful, the Compassionate, the Just etc.

Muslims believe that since Allah alone is the Creator, it is He alone that deserves our devout love and worship. Islam holds to a strict monotheism. Any worship and prayers directed at saints, prophets, other human beings or nature is considered idolatry.

What do Muslims believe about God, prophets, the afterlife, etc.?

The basic beliefs of Muslims fall into six main categories, which are known as the “Articles of Faith”:

  • Faith in the unity of God
  • Faith in angels
  • Faith in books of revelation
  • Faith in prophets
  • Faith in an afterlife
  • Faith in destiny/divine decree

The “five pillars” of Islam

In Islam, faith and good works go hand-in-hand. A mere verbal declaration of faith is not enough, for belief in Allah makes obedience to Him a duty.

The Muslim concept of worship is very broad. Muslims consider everything they do in life to be an act of worship, if it is done according to Allah’s guidance. There are also five formal acts of worship which help strengthen a Muslim’s faith and obedience. They are often called the “Five Pillars of Islam.”

Daily life as a Muslim

While often seen as a radical or extreme religion, Muslims consider Islam to be the middle road. Muslims do not live life with complete disregard for God or religious matters, but nor do they neglect the world to devote themselves solely to worship and prayer. Muslims strike a balance by fulfilling the obligations of and enjoying this life, while always mindful of their duties to Allah and to others.

 A person of faith orders his whole life according to the Qur’an and strives to apply carefully from day to day what he has read and learned in its verses. In everything he does from the moment he gets up in the morning until the time he falls asleep at night, he is intent on thinking, speaking and acting according to the teachings of the Qur’an. Allah shows in the Qur’an that this dedication dominates the whole life of a believer.

Say: “My prayer and my rites, my living and my dying, are for Allah alone, the Lord of all the worlds.” (QURAN,Surat al-An’am: 162)

By Allah’s will, living according to the teaching of the Qur’an and the Sunnah (way of Prophet(pbuh)) will enable people to develop a broad way of understanding, superior intelligence, the ability to distinguish right from wrong and the ability to consider a matter in depth. These characteristics will ensure that the person who possesses them will live every moment of his life in the ease that comes from these advantages. A person who lives his life in submission to Allah and according to the teaching of the Qur’an will be totally different from other people how he behaves, sits and walks, in his point of view and how he explains and interprets things, and in the solutions he finds for the problems that confront him.

Muslims strive each day to walk the “middle road” — meeting one’s needs and living life, while being ever-mindful of God and the responsibilities we each have to Him and to our fellow human beings. A Muslim should try to strike a balance, being “of this world” without being neglectful of the spiritual realm